How to Play BlackjackAlthough no one can agree on exactly when and where the game of blackjack truly originated, the most widely accepted theory is that it came from France around 1700.

Its origins aren’t of any real consequence though, and the game as we know it today has been played the same way for centuries now, albeit with new inventive side bets and game variations cropping up along the way.

It’s a card game played against a dealer, and the aim of the game is for your hand to beat the dealer’s. To do that you need your total score to be closer to 21 than theirs without going over. Going over 21 results in a bust and the dealer wins.

When summed up like that it sounds incredibly simple, and it is in a way, but what makes blackjack so popular is the ability for savvy players to play tactically and improve their chances of winning. This is still a game of chance, but your fate is not completely up to the Gods.

The Basics

Blackjack LogoThere is a lot to talk about with blackjack, but you won’ get very far unless you have a solid foundation and understand the basics, so let’s break the game down a little as a starting point and then run through an example hand to let the information bed in.

Blackjack starts with your bet. You place your bet before anything else happens. If you are playing in real life you will have to wait for all other players to place their bets too as they will all be playing against the same dealer hand; if playing online you can go at your own pace. Remember, the aim here is to get at close to 21 as possible without going over.

Once all bets are made you will be dealt two cards and so will the dealer, you will be able to see both of your cards but only one of the dealer’s. Once the cards are dealt you will have two basic options: to stand (keep your cards as they are) or to hit (take an extra card). You can hit more than once but if you go over 21 (bust) you lose the game.

Once you are happy with your hand the dealer will complete their hand and providing neither of you have bust the hand with the highest value wins. If you have hands of equal value it is a ‘push’ and your stake is returned.

That’s the game in its simplest form. There are other options available to you but we will cover those separately later on – for now, let’s run through an example hand.

Example Blackjack Hand

Online blackjack tables look much the same as real life ones, so wherever you play you will be looking at something similar to this:

Blackjack Table

This is the simplest version of a blackjack table that you will find. It has the basic rules written in the middle of the board, the shoe of cards and the dealer’s space, and then three betting areas for the player which we have marked with green stars.

The only other thing to be aware of are the various chip values, marked with a green arrow. At the moment, the chip with a value of £1 is selected which is why it is slightly raised – that means any bet you place will be worth £1, but if you wanted to bet more you could either place several £1 chips or select a larger chip value before placing your bet.

In a real casino the betting areas would be taken up by different people sitting at the table, but online the player can use all of them if they want to, although of course this means you will be betting 3 times as much per round.

We will go ahead and place a £1 bet on a single hand.

Blackjack Placing bet

You can see our £1 chip is now on the table and we have a few new options:

  • Deal
  • Double
  • Undo
  • Clear All

The first two are game options; you can either start the game by hitting deal or double your stake by hitting double.

The second two are to do with table management; undo will remove the last chip you placed, whereas clear all will remove all chips from the table.

We are happy with our bet so we will hit deal and see which cards we get.

Blackjack Deal

We have been dealt a 9 of spades and a 7 of diamonds, so our hand is worth 16. This is where the game gets interesting.

If happy with that number we can stand (also called hold) and if we would like to get closer to 21 we can hit. Remember though, if we hit and go over 21 we bust and lose the game.

The dealer has a 7, but we will not find out what their other card is until we have finished our hand, so we need to think about the possibilities based on the cards that could come out next.

We know the dealer has to stand on 17 (it’s written in the middle of the table) and there are a lot of cards in the shoe worth 10, they will also keep drawing cards until they get to 16 so our only hope is to hit and get a better score or cross our fingers and hope the dealer busts.

Basic strategy tells us that we should always hit on 16 if the dealer’s up card is a 7, so that is what we will do.

Blackjack Hit

Our luck was in. We get a 5 to make 21 on the button, and the dealer’s up card was a 6 giving them 13. They had to keep drawing cards to 16 and their third card was another 7 giving them a total of 20, meaning we won the hand.

We are paid out at 1:1, so our stake of £1 becomes £2.

If you are wondering why we were not paid out at the blackjack rate of 3:2, it’s because 21 is not the same as blackjack. Blackjack refers to hands made up of an Ace (worth 1 or 11) and a card worth 10, so the higher payout refers only to this card combination. True blackjack will also usually beat a hand of 21 even though they have the same numerical value.


You may on occasion be dealt two cards with the same face value, like this:

Blackjack Pairs

If this happens you will be given the option to ‘split’, highlighted in green above, and if you choose that option the two cards will be separated to create two different hands. It will also cost you another bet equal to the initial stake.

You are now playing two hands against the dealer’s one, but the advantage is that you know what one of their cards is before you make the decision.

Let’s split the hand above and see what it looks like:

Blackjack Split

You can see the new hand has been created above the initial hand with the extra stake below it.

The game now plays out as normal one hand at a time, so you will complete the hand at the bottom before moving on to the one above.

Assuming you haven’t gone bust on both hands, the dealer will then complete their hand and any winnings will be paid out.

It is possible to lose both hands, win both hands, and to win one but lose the other.

Doubling Down

Doubling DownThis is not the same as the option to double your bet before the game begins.

Doubling down is another mid game option in blackjack, but it’s only possible after the first two cards are dealt. If you do it you can only receive one more card and it is obviously costing you twice your original stake too, so it is a risk.

There are times when doubling down makes statistical sense, although you should only ever do it when the dealer is showing a low value up card:

  • When your hand totals 11
  • When you have a soft 16, 17, or 18
  • When you have a hard 9 or 10

A soft hand is one that contains an Ace, a hard hand is one that does not. Therefore, a soft 18 can still trigger the option to double (table rules allowing) because your hand would be an Ace and a 7, which could also make 8 should the Ace be used as a 1 rather than an 11.

You should never double down if the dealer is showing an Ace.


Blackjack Insurance

It is widely accepted that you should never take insurance when playing blackjack.

It will be offered to you if the dealer’s up card is an Ace as in the image above, which is obviously a dangerous card for them to have because if their down card is a 10 they will get blackjack and beat any hand you can come up with.

This is what you are insuring yourself against.

The problem is that insurance costs half of your original stake and only pays out at 2/1 if the dealer does have blackjack. So in a best case scenario you lose your stake but win your insurance bet, the result being that you come away even.

If the dealer does not have blackjack you lose your insurance bet and you might lose the hand as well, costing you half as much again overall.

If you win the hand, your overall winnings are half what they would be because you lost your insurance bet.

None of these three options are great for the player, so best to just complete the hand as normal and carry on.

Perfect Blackjack Strategy

Each version of the game has a perfect or optimal strategy to go along with it. This can be thought of as an instruction manual that tells you exactly what to do in any given scenario, and it ensures that you give the casino as low a house edge as possible.

Of course the game is still weighted in their favour even if you do everything 100% correctly, but by sticking to your strategy you at least aren’t giving them any more of an advantage.

Below are the optimal strategies for a single deck, 6 deck, and 8 deck game of blackjack. They should hopefully be pretty easy to understand, and they tell you what to do with every card combination on the table.

So if you have a 9 and a 6 and the dealer has a 10, you can look at the charts and find out whether it is better to hold, hit, double, etc.

This doesn’t mean you will win the hand every time, but over the long term these are the best moves to make.

Single Deck Blackjack Strategy

This table assumes that the dealer holds on a soft 17.

Single Deck Blackjack Strategy Card

6 to 8 Deck Blackjack Strategy

Likewise, this table also assumes that the dealer holds on a soft 17.

6 to 8 Deck Blackjack Strategy Guide

Variations and Rule Changes

We mentioned that the game of blackjack has been tinkered with a lot over the years, and there are now more variations of the game than ever.

Some of these have just had the rules changed a little, while others introduce new betting options or game play options to either give the player more control or a chance to win larger amounts of money on each hand – with increased risk of course.

We will cover a few specific side bets in detail in the section below, but apart from them, there are two main ways in which developers alter the game.

Number of Decks

Playing CardsOne way they do this is by altering the number of decks used in the game. You will find anywhere from a single deck to eight decks being used in most games, although six or eight is most common.

Single deck blackjack would be the ideal choice for anyone who wants to count cards because they can easily calculate their chances of success based on the cards they can see and the cards remaining in the shoe.

This is actually why extra decks were added by casinos in the first place, to make card counting more difficult, but single deck games do exist. You might find the blackjack payout has been reduced to 6:5 though in an attempt to balance things out.

The optimal strategy is slightly different depending on the number of decks used too, so if you are following a strategy make sure it suits the game you are actually playing.

Additional Features

Terminator Blackjack 400Some blackjack variations use additional features to mix things up, such as Blackjack Surrender which allows players to bail on a hand if they don’t like it and get half of their stake back.

Other games might give you something for free, like Free Chip Blackjack which doesn’t charge for doubling or splitting in certain situations.

These options add a different dimension to the game but again, they have to be balanced so the game is weighted properly. It might be that the rules have been adapted so that the dealer checks for blackjack before the player takes their turn, or that doubling after splitting is not allowed. Whatever it is, you will usually find that you are paying for these extra features in one way or another.

Other variations might be themed around a popular movie or TV show, such as Terminator Blackjack which, although it features side bets, is essentially just blackjack with some visual differences; or Deal or No Deal Blackjack, which takes elements of the popular game show and incorporates them in to the game, in this case by allowing players to ‘sell’ their hand to the dealer or see the hand through.

You might even find a progressive jackpot built into some variations.

As you can tell, the developers can be very inventive with their creations, but it is up to you to decide whether or not you think these additional features are any good.

Side Bets

Side bets are a more traditional addition to blackjack than some of the extra features mentioned above, but there are a good number of different ones available.

You will usually find them next to where you place your regular bets and they sometimes change appearance when active. The image below is from a game called All Bets Blackjack which has loads of them, so they are encircling the main betting area and we have marked them with red stars:

All Bets Blackjack Side Bets marked

A side bet is just an extra bet that can be played alongside the main game, and not all games will include them while others might include four or five different side bets.

There is no obligation to use them either, they are completely optional.

A side bet is independent of the main game in the sense that you can lose the game but still win the side bet, although they are all based on what happens within the game.

For example, one popular side bet is that the dealer will go bust. If the player goes bust the dealer wouldn’t usually reveal their hand because it is irrelevant, but with this side bet active the game would continue even though the player’s hand had lost, because the side bet depends on the dealer’s hand.

Here are some of the most regularly spotted side bets and a brief description:

Side Bet Description
Perfect Pairs A bet that you will be dealt any pair.
Buster A bet on the dealer going bust. Sometimes the payout can increase the more cards it takes them to do so.
21+3 Pays if specific hands are formed using the player’s first 2 cards & the dealer’s up card.
Hi-Lo Bet on whether the player’s second card will be higher or lower than the first.
7’s Hands containing 7’s win, sometimes the dealer’s up card is also included to allow for a triple 7 payout.
Lucky Lucky Create specific combinations using the dealer’s up card and the player’s first two cards.

Rather confusingly these side bets can also have different names, for example the Buster side bet is sometimes called Bust It, and the rules for them can change too, but essentially these are the man ‘types’ of side bet out there.

You might sometimes find a jackpot side bet too, which is just an opportunity to win an associated jackpot. Some are triggered randomly on any hand and others require a specific bet to be in with a chance.

Common Questions

What is Blackjack Card Counting Software?

A basic software program that you run alongside a blackjack game in a live casino, that can do many things such as keep track of the running count and the true count, and even tell you how much to bet each hand based on several different betting strategies. They are all a bit different in what they offer and how they work, but all make it much easier to keep the count.

Face Card Values: How Much is a King / Queen / Jack Worth in Blackjack?

All face cards are worth 10 in blackjack, and this is also true of the number 10. All other cards are worth their face value, apart from the Ace which can be used as an 11 or as a 1. A King, Queen, Jack or 10 is a very useful card because you need it to create blackjack in the first place (along with an Ace), but keeping track of 10 value cards is useful in a more general sense too, as a show loaded with them can be very useful to know about.

What Online Blackjack Game Has the Lowest House Edge?

Games with the early surrender rules tend to have a lower than average house edge, but the thing with blackjack, is that many different rules can be tweaked to make two very similar games have different house edges. The lowest house edge we have ever seen is 0.08% - so an RTP of 99.92% - which was Playtech's Blackjack Switch.

What is a Composition Dependent Blackjack Strategy?

The often touted basic strategy is one that focuses on your hand total to dictate what the optimal decision is in every situation. This is known as a total dependent strategy. A composition dependent strategy, on the other hand, is also concerned with exactly which cards make up your hand total and how many cards there are. It's much harder to get to grips with, but does offer a very slight advantage over a total dependent strategy.

What is a 5 Card Trick and does it Beat 21 in Blackjack?

Also known as a 5 Card Charlie, this is actually a rule better associated with Pontoon. It has found its way into blackjack games though, especially online, although the rules around it can be different depending on the game you choose. A five card trick is when the player ends up with a 5 card hand without going bust, and it beats any dealer hand apart from Pontoon/Blackjack.

Does a No Bust Blackjack Strategy Work?

No it doesn't. In situations where the dealer has a strong up card, you have more chance of beating them by hitting than by standing and hoping the dealer busts. The dealer only busts 33.15% of the time, meaning approximately two thirds of the time they are going to end up with a hand total of 17 or above, and in those situations, you need a higher hand in order to win.

What are the Best Blackjack Themed Films?

Blackjack has been the subject of a few very good films, and has featured memorably in great scenes from many more. These are just some of those movies, and the ones we consider to be the best, but there are more out there if you do some digging.

What are Elimination Blackjack Tournaments?

A specific type of blackjack tournament in which all players start with the same amount of chips, and play the same number of hands, with the players who have the lowest chip stacks at various points being eliminated along the way. At the final table, the player with the most chips after the final hand is the winner.

What Are the Biggest Mistakes Players Make in Blackjack?

There are many and they vary on a player's experience level. From playing at a 6:5 table, not checking the table rules, and taking insurance, to splitting hands like 10s, 5s and 4s, and standing on soft 18s when the dealer shows a 3, 4, 5, 6, or 9 - there are many more in this article as well as explanations as to why they are mistakes to be avoided.

What's the Difference Between a Hard and Soft Hand in Blackjack?

A soft hand contains an Ace that can be used as a 1 or an 11 and can be hit without the risk of going bust; a hard hand either does not contain an Ace at all, or contains an Ace that can only be used as a 1 because the total hand value would bust the hand if it was used as an 11.

In Which Films Does James Bond Play Blackjack?

There is actually only one film in which Bond plays Blackjack, and that is License to Kill. Many people mistake Bond's favourite game of Chemin de Fur as Blackjack, but this is a misconception. He does try his hand at several other games too, though.

What is the Difference Between Early and Late Surrender in Blackjack?

Surrendering is when the player folds their hand after the initial deal, costing them half of their stake. The early surrender rule allows this to happen before the dealer checks for a natural blackjack, the late surrender rule only allows the player to surrender after the dealer has checked for a natural blackjack. Therefore, early surrender is the preferable rule where available.

What is Deck Penetration in Blackjack

When a new shoe comes into play the dealer will insert a cut card which will dictate how many cards in that shoe will be played before it is swapped out for another. The point at which this cut card goes in is the deck penetration. This is important for card counters who will want to see that cut card inserted as close to the back of the shoe as possible.

How do Blackjack Hand Signals Work?

You can tap the table for a hit, wave your hand over your cards to stand, add chips and lay a finger next to them to double, add chips and form an upside down V shape to split, and draw a line under your hand to surrender. These are all visual indications to the dealer that you have made a certain decision about your hand, and they help minimise any confusion at the table that could lead to uncomfortable situations.

Is Blackjack a Game of Skill or Luck?

It's both. The cards you are dealt verses the cards the dealer is dealt are out of your control, so this element is all down to luck. However, the decisions you make once you are dealt those cards can change the outcome of the hand, so understand when to hit, stand, split etc. is very much down to skill and knowledge.

How Do You Play Blackjack at Home With No Dealer?

You always need a dealer to play blackjack in one form or another, but the way you do it can be quite creative. You could pick one person to be the dealer all night if they are willing, rotate the dealer after each hand or after a set number of games, or even collectively deal, not to mention options like Caddy Blackjack. Some are better suited to fun games though and some work better when there is money invovled.

What is the World Series of Blackjack?

A short lived televised blackjack tournament that was aired weekly for a few months each year from 2004-2007, with a first prize that eventually reached $500,000. It attracted professionals, keen enthusiasts, and even celebrities, but ultimately didn't take off in the same way that televised poker did, despite working very well as a format.

What is Wonging in Blackjack?

Named after Stanford Wong who popularised the practice, wonging is waiting for a deck or shoe to show a strongly positive count before joining the game and betting big to take advantage of this. It can be done alone or in a team.

How Do Live Casinos Identify What Cards are Dealt?

There are a few ways, but the most common is by using a barcode printed in the middle of each card. The dealer then draws each card across a barcode reader as they pull it from the shoe, which tells the game software which cards are on the table.

When is the Deck Shuffled in Blackjack?

It depends on the game your are playing and where you are playing it, but in general a game using a smaller number of decks will be shuffled more often. A game using a shoe of 6-8 decks will probably be shuffled (or swapped out) somewhere between 40%-60% of the way through the shoe.

What is Edge Sorting?

Edge sorting is a way of gaining information on cards before they are dealt, and is officially considered to be cheating, as it takes advantage of card imperfections but requires an element of manipulation on the players part.

Can You be Good at Blackjack?

Blackjack is a game where the player's actions can influence the outcome of the game, so you can absolutely improve your blackjack skills by learning about perfect strategy and card counting, and then learning how to apply these to the various different blackjack rules and variations.

Blackjack Tournaments: How do they Work and is there Skill Involved?

In a blackjack tournament you are trying to beat the other players more than the dealer, so you need the skill to not only track their bets and the number of chips they have remaining, but also to know how to bet in response to their choices in order to put yourself ahead of them on the leader board.

How Do You Cheat at Blackjack?

There are many different cheating methods for blackjack, from sleight of hand tricks and misdirection, to working with others and even using devices, but all of them are illegal and could land you in jail. So by all means look into it if it interests you, but don't actually try it for yourself.

Does Blackjack Always Pay 3:2?

Although 3:2 is the traditional payout for blackjack, these days you will find the 6:5 payout creeping in more and more. There are a few reasons for this but it is a worse deal for the player.

Are Pontoon and Blackjack the Same Game?

They are both very similar in general terms but they differ greatly when it comes to payouts, winning hands, and doubling, not to mention the terminology changes. The short answer is no, they are not the same game.

What is the House Edge in Blackjack?

The house edge totally depends on how you play, but assuming you are playing a standard game with a perfect basic strategy the house edge is just 0.5%. The various different rules employed by some casinos can change this though, and the edge for side bets is different again.

Is Blackjack Insurance Worth Taking?

No. Nope. Never. Even though the dealer is showing an Ace, and even if all of the 10 value cards are still in the shoe you are statistically more likely to lose an insurance bet than win it.

How Does Card Counting Work for Online Blackjack?

The system for card counting is exactly the same whether you play online or off, but your chances of success drop dramatically by playing online. In short, it is impossible to card count playing RNG based games, and it is mostly not worthwhile card counting on a live casino game because of the speed of play, house rules, and shuffling system.

How Does Betting Behind Work in Blackjack?

Betting behind allows you to bet at a blackjack table that is full by essentially betting on the performance of the seated players. If you bet behind you do not control the hand, the seated player does, but if the hand wins then so do you.

What are the Odds of Being Dealt Blackjack Naturally?

It varies a little depending on the number of decks in use, but the chances of a natural blackjack are a little under 5%, or once in every 21 hands played. A natural blackjack is a hand made up of an Ace and a 10 value card.

Does the Number of Decks Matter in Blackjack?

As the number of decks used increases, so does the casino's house edge. This is because your chances of getting blackjack are reduced as deck numbers go up, which has a knock on effect on the house edge. More decks also make it difficult for card counters to keep track of what is going on, and this is actually one of the main reasons so many games are now played with between 6 and 8 decks.

When Should You Surrender in Blackjack?

Surrendering will save you half of your stake in situations where your hand is not high enough to stand much chance of winning, but too high to risk hitting and potentially going bust. A 16 is a good example.

When Should You Split in Blackjack?

Broadly speaking, splitting is a definite yes on Aces and 8's, and a definite no on 4s, 5s, and 10s. There is more to it though if you want to play optimally.

When Should You Double in Blackjack?

Doubling is a good bet if you have an 11, a soft 16, 17, or 18, or a hard 9 or 10. It's definitely not advised if the dealer is showing an Ace or if you have a hand over 11 with no Ace included.